Team leader: Valérie Cayol. Co-team leader: Karim Kelfoun.
Our team is one of the most important in volcanology at the international level.
It has about forty people, including 24 permanent researchers and lecturers, and about twenty PhD and post-doctoral students.
We cover a wide range of topics and methods, from the transport and storage conditions of magma in the crust to the internal dynamics of volcanoes and eruptive processes at the surface, and to their implications for volcanic hazards. Our approach consists of coupling observations and measurements (field and satellite remote sensing) with Laboratory experiments and numerical modelling.
In addition to collaborations with numerous observatories on active volcanoes, we focus on volcanoes in IRD partner countries (Chile, Ecuador, Indonesia, Peru, Vanuatu).
- Research areas:
Transport and storage of magmas in the crust (flows and time scales, reservoir formation) Physical processes and internal structure of volcanic edifices (deformation, seismicity, hydrothermal systems, muon tomography) Processes in conduits and plumes (fragmentation, eruptive styles, remote sensing monitoring and characterization, magma degassing) Volcanic flows (modelling of lava flows, pyroclastic flows, debris avalanches, tsunamis, lahars, and associated hazards) Evolution of volcanic edifices (petro-geochemical, structural and geomorphological evolution)
- Contribution to the OPGC Observation Services for volcanic activity
Satellite monitoring of volcanic activity (HotVolc), radar interferometry (OI²), Doppler radar (Voldorad), SO2 flux by absorption spectrometry (GazVolc), database on eruptive products (DynVolc), ground thermal remote sensing (Thermavolc), electromagnetism, gravimetry and seismology (Réseau Sismologique Auvergne) Contribution to the National Observation Services (SNO): SNOV, ISDEFORM and VELI
- Collaborations on the Clermont site: LaMP (Physical Meteorology Laboratory), LPC (Corpuscular Physics Laboratory), LM (Mathematics Laboratory), LIMOS (Computer Science, Modelling and Systems Optimisation Laboratory), MSH (Maison des Sciences de l’Homme), CERDI (Centre d’Etude et de Recherches sur le Développement International)
Tweets by VolcanoLMV
43 personnes :
Volcanology Team – July 2019
The “Physical volcanology” platform includes all the devices used for the experimental study of volcanic phenomena (experimental volcanology laboratory), instruments for the textural characterization of volcanic products (G3 morpho-granulometer, pycnometers and permeameters in the textural analysis laboratory), geophysical measurement equipment (DGPS, resistivity tomography, spontaneous polarization, electromagnetic soundings, ERT, GPR, seismic stations), and satellite and ground-based remote sensing tools (Doppler radars, DOAS, MultiGas, IR cameras, drones and image processing laboratory). It should be noted that some of these instruments are part of the OPGC’s observation services.
Geophysics Textural analysis laboratory Laboratory of experimental volcanology Numerical modelling Remote sensing
Rang A :90 publication(s) found(s)
- Arran M.I., Mangeney A., De Rosny J., Farin M., Toussaint R., Roche O. (2021). Laboratory Landquakes: Insights From Experiments Into the High-Frequency Seismic Signal Generated by Geophysical Granular Flows. Journal of Geophysical Research-Earth Surface vol.126, - DOI:10.1029/2021JF006172.
- Barnoud A., Cayol V., Lelièvre P.G., Portal A., Labazuy P., Boivin P., Gailler L. (2021). Robust Bayesian Joint Inversion of Gravimetric and Muographic Data for the Density Imaging of the Puy de Dôme Volcano (France). Frontiers in Earth Science vol.8, p.575842, - DOI:10.3389/feart.2020.575842 - .
- Behrens J., Løvholt F., Jalayer F., Lorito S., Salgado-Gálvez M.A., Sørensen M., Abadie S., Aguirre-Ayerbe I., Aniel-Quiroga I., Babeyko A., Baiguera M., Basili R., Belliazzi S., Grezio A., Johnson K., Murphy S., Paris R., Rafliana I., De Risi R., Rossetto T., Selva J., Taroni M., Del Zoppo M., Armigliato A., Bures V., Cech P., Cecioni C., Christodoulides P., Davies G., Dias F., Bas¸ ak Bayraktar H., González M., Gritsevich M., Guillas S., Bonnevie Harbitz C., Kanoglu U., Macías G., Papadopoulos G.A., Polet J., Romano F., Salamon A., Scala A., Stepinac M., Tappin D.R., Kie Thio H., Tonini R., Triantafyllou I., Ulrich T., Varini E., Volpe M., Vyhmeister E. (2021). Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard and Risk Analysis: A Review of Research Gaps. Frontiers in Earth Science vol.9, p.628772, - DOI:10.3389/feart.2021.628772 - .
- Berthod C., Médard E., Bachèlery P., Gurioli L., Di Muro A., Peltier A., Komorowski J.C., Benbakkar M., Devidal J.L., Langlade J., Besson P., Boudon G., Rose-Koga E., Deplus C., Le Friant A., Bickert M., Nowak S., Thinon I., Burckel P., Hidalgo S., Kaliwoda M., Jorry S.J., Fouquet Y., Feuillet N. (2021). The 2018-ongoing Mayotte submarine eruption: Magma migration imaged by petrological monitoring. Earth and Planetary Science Letters vol.571, p.117085, - DOI:10.1016/j.epsl.2021.117085 - .
- Bevilacqua A., Aravena A., Neri A., Gutiérrez E., Escobar D., Schliz M., Aiuppa A., Cioni R. (2021). Thematic vent opening probability maps and hazard assessment of small-scale pyroclastic density currents in the San Salvador volcanic complex (El Salvador) and Nejapa-Chiltepe volcanic complex (Nicaragua). Natural Hazard and Earth System Sciences vol.21, p.1639-1665, - DOI:10.5194/nhess-21-1639-2021.
- Bisson M., Tadini A., Gianardi R., Angioletti A. (2021). The use of historical cartography and ALS technology to map the geomorphological changes of volcanic areas: A case study from Gran Cono of Somma-Vesuvius volcano. Geomorphology vol.380, p.107624, - DOI:10.1016/j.geomorph.2021.107624 - .
- Bonilauri E., Harris A., Morin J., Ripepe M., Mangione D., Lacanna G., Ciolli S., Cusolito M., Deguy P. (2021). Tsunami evacuation times and routes to safe zones: a GIS-based approach to tsunami evacuation planning on the island of Stromboli, Italy. Journal of Applied Volcanology vol.10, 4, - DOI:10.1186/s13617-021-00104-9 - .
- Bougouin A., Roche O., Paris R., Huppert H. (2021). Experimental Insights on thePropagation of Fine-Grained Geophysical Flows Entering Water. Journal of Geophysical Research - Oceans vol.126, 4, - DOI:1029/2020JC016838 - .
- Chupin L., Dubois T., Phan M., Roche O. (2021). Pressure-dependent threshold in a granular flow: Numerical modeling andexperimental validation. Journal of Non-newtonian Fluid Mechanics vol.291, p.104529, - DOI:10.1016/j.jnnfm.2021.104529.
- Cornu M.N., Paris R., Doucelance R., Bachèlery P., Bosq C., Auclair D., Benbakkar M., Gannoun A.M., Guillou H. (2021). Exploring the links between volcano flank collapse and the magmatic evolution of an ocean island volcano: Fogo, Cape Verde. Scientific Report vol.11, p.17478, - DOI:10.1038/s41598-021-96897-1 - .
- De Martini P.M., Bruins H.J., Feist L., Goodman-Tchernov B.N., Hadler H., Lario J., Mastronuzzi G., Obrocki L., Pantosti D., Paris R., Reicherter K., Smedile A., Vött A. (2021). The Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Cadiz as a natural laboratory for paleotsunami research: Recent advancements. Earth Sciences Reviews vol.216, p.103578, - DOI:10.1016/j.earscirev.2021.103578.
- Donzé F.V., Klinger Y., Bonilla-Sierra V., Duriez J., Jiao L., Scholtes L. (2021). Assessing the brittle crust thickness from strike-slip fault segments on Earth, Mars and Icy moons. Tectonophysics vol.805, p.228779, - DOI:10.1016/j.tecto.2021.228779.
- Dufresne, A., Zernack, A., Bernard K., Thouret J.C., Roverato, M. (2021). Sedimentology of Volcanic Debris Avalanche Deposits. vol.8, p.1-36, Volcanic Debris Avalanches -From Collapse to Hazard. Herausgeber: Roverato, Matteo, Dufresne, Anja, Procter, Jonathan (Eds.), Springer Nature Switzerland AG, - DOI:10.1007/978-3-030-57411-6.
- Freret-Lorgeril V., Bonadonna C., Corradini S., Donnadieu F., Guerrieri L., Lacanna G., Marzano F.S., Mereu L., Merucci L., Ripepe M., Scollo S., Stelitano D. (2021). Examples of Multi-Sensor Determination of Eruptive Source Parameters of Explosive Events at Mount Etna. Remote Sensing vol.13, p.2097, - DOI:10.3390/rs13112097 - .
- Fries A., Roche O., Carazzo G. (2021). Granular mixture deflation and generation of porefluid pressureat the impact zone of a pyroclastic fountain: Experimental insights. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research vol.414, p.107226, - DOI:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2021.107226 - .
- Georgeais G., Koga K., Moussallam Y., Rose-Koga E. (2021). Magma decompression rate calculations with EMBER: A user‐friendly software to model diffusion of H2O, CO2 and S in melt embayments. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems - DOI:10.1029/2020GC009542 - .
- Guilbaud M.N., del Pilar Ortega-Larrocea M., Cram S., Van Wyk De Vries B. (2021). Xitle Volcano Geoheritage, Mexico City: Raising Awareness of Natural Hazards and Environmental Sustainability in Active Volcanic Areas. Geoheritage vol.13, 6, - DOI:10.1007/s12371-020-00525-9.
- Gurrieri S., Liuzzo M., Giuffrida G., Boudoire G. (2021). The first observations of CO2 and CO2/SO2 degassing variations recorded at Mt. Etna during the 2018 eruptions followed by three strong earthquakes. Italian Journal of Geosciences vol.140, 1, - DOI:10.3301/IJG.2020.25.
- Jessop D., Moune S., Moretti R., Gibert D., Komorowski J.C., Robert V., Heap M.J., Bosson A., Bonifacie M., Deroussi S., Dessert C., Rosas-Carbajal M., Lemarchand A., Burtin A. (2021). A multi-decadal view of the heat and mass budget of a volcano in unrest: La Soufrière de Guadeloupe (French West Indies). Bulletin of Volcanology vol.83, 16, - DOI:10.1007/s00445-021-01439-2.
- Kelfoun K., Santoso A.B., Latchimy T., Bontemps M., Nurdien I., Beauducel F., Fahmi A., Putra R., Dahamna N., Laurin A., Rizal M.H., Sukmana J.T., Gueugneau V. (2021). Growth and collapse of the 2018−2019 lava dome of Merapi volcano. Bulletin of Volcanology - DOI:10.1007/s00445-020-01428-x - .
- Marino J., Samaniego P., Manrique N., Valderrama P., Roche O., Van wyk de Vries M., Guillou H., Zerathe S., Arias C., Liorzou C. (2021). The Tutupaca volcanic complex (Southern Peru): Eruptive chronology and successive destabilization of a dacitic dome complex. Journal of South American Earth Sciences vol.109, p.103227, - DOI:10.1016/j.jsames.2021.103227.
- Montserrat S., Ordoñez L., Tamburrino A., Roche O. (2021). Influence of bottom roughness and ambient pressure conditions on the emplacement of experimental dam‑break granular flows. Granular Matter vol.23, p.57, - DOI:10.1007/s10035-021-01125-2.
- Moussallam Y., Médard E., Georgeais G., Rose-Koga E., Gurioli L., Pelletier B., Bani P., Grandin R., Boichu M., Shreve T.L., Tari D., Peters N. (2021). How to turn off a lava lake? A petrological investigation of the 2018 intra-caldera and submarine eruptions of Ambrym volcano. Bulletin of Volcanology vol.Special volume, - DOI:10.1007/s00445-021-01455-2.
- Myers M.L., Druitt T., Schiavi F., Gurioli L., Flaherty T. (2021). Evolution of magma decompression and discharge during a Plinian event (Late Bronze-Age eruption, Santorini) from multiple eruption-intensity proxies. Bulletin of Volcanology vol.83, p.18, - DOI:10.1007/s00445-021-01438-3.
- Nguyen H.N.G., Scholtes L., Guglielmi Y., Donzé F.V., Ouraga Z., Souley M. (2021). Micromechanics of Sheared Granular Layers Activated by Fluid Pressurization. Geophysical Research Letters vol.48, 14, - DOI:10.1029/2021GL093222 - .
- Paris R., Sabatier P., Biguenet M., Bougouin A., André G., Roger J. (2021). A tsunami deposit at Anse Meunier, Martinique Island: Evidence of the 1755 CE Lisbon tsunami and implication for hazard assessment. Marine Geology vol.439, p.106561, - DOI:10.1016/j.margeo.2021.106561.
- Peltier A., Ferrazzini V., Di Muro A., Kowalski P., Villeneuve N., Richter N., Chevrel O., Froger J.L., Hrysiewicz A., Gouhier M., Coppola D., Retailleau L., Beauducel F., Gurioli L., Boissier P., Brunet C., Catherine P., Fontaine F., Lauret F., Garavaglia L., Lebreton J., Canjamale K., Desfete N., Griot C., Harris A., Arellano S., Liuzzo M., Gurrieri S., Ramsey M. (2021). Volcano Crisis Management at Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion) during the COVID-19 Lockdown. Seismological Research Letters - DOI:10.1785/0220200212 - .
- Ramírez-Uribe I., Siebe C., Chevrel O., Fisher C.T. (2021). Rancho Seco monogenetic volcano (Michoacán, Mexico): Petrogenesis and lava flow emplacement based on LiDAR images. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research - DOI:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2020.107169.
- Roche O., Azzaoui N., Guillin A. (2021). Discharge rate of explosive volcanic eruption controls runout distance of pyroclastic density currents. Earth and Planetary Science Letters vol.568, p.117017, - DOI:10.1016/j.epsl.2021.117017.
- Roche O., Van den Wildenberg S., Valance A., Delannay R., Mangeney A., Corna L., Latchimy T. (2021). Experimental assessment of the effective friction at the base of granular chute flowson a smooth incline. Physical Review vol.E 103, p.042905, - DOI:10.1103/PhysRevE.103.042905 - .
- Rose-Koga E., Bouvier A., Gaetani G.A., Wallace P.J., Allison C.M., Andrys J.A., Angeles de la Torre C.A., Barth A., Bodnar R.J., Bracco Gartner A.J.J., Butters D., Castillejo A., Chilson-Parks B., Choudhary B.R., Cluzel N., Cole M., Cottrell E., Daly A., Danyushevsky L.V., DeVitre C.L., Drignon M.J., France L., Gaborieau M., Garcia M.O., Gatti E., Genske F.S., Hartley M.E., Hughes E.C., Iveson A.A., Johnson E.R., Jones M., Kagoshima T., Katzir Y., Kawaguchi M., Kawamoto T., Kelley K.A., Koornneef J.M., Kurz M.D., Laubier M., Layne G.D., Lerner A., Lin K.Y., Liu P.P., Lorenzo-Merino A., Luciani N., Magalhães N., Marschall H.R., Michael P.J., Monteleone B.D., Moore L.R., Moussallam Y., Muth M., Myers M.L., Narvaez D., Navon O., Newcombe M.E., Nichols A.R.L., Nielsen R.L., Pamukcu A., Plank T., Rasmussen D.J., Roberge J., Schiavi F., Schwartz D., Shimizu K., Shimizu K., Shimizu N., Thomas J.B., Thompson G.T., Tucker J.M., Ustunisik G., Waelkens C., Zhang Y., Zhou T. (2021). Silicate melt inclusions in the new millennium: A review of recommended practices for preparation, analysis, and data presentation. Chemical Geology vol.570, p.120145, - DOI:10.1016/j.chemgeo.2021.120145 - .
- Shreve T., Grandin R., Smittarello D., Cayol V., Pinel V., Boichu M., Morishita Y. (2021). What triggers caldera ring-fault subsidence at Ambrym volcano? Insights from the 2015 dike intrusion and eruption. Journal of Geophysical Research - Solid Earth vol.126, p.e2020JB020277, 6, - DOI:10.1029/2020JB020277.
- Tadini A., Bevilacqua A., Neri A., Cioni R., Biagioli G., de’Michieli Vitturi M., Esposti Ongaro T. (2021). Reproducing pyroclastic density current deposits of the 79CE eruption of the Somma–Vesuvius volcano using the box-model approach. Solid Earth vol.12, p.119-139, - DOI:10.5194/se-12-119-2021 - .
- Tadini A., Roche O., Samaniego P., Azzaoui N., Bevilacqua A., Guillin A., Gouhier M., Bernard B., Aspinall W., Hidalgo S., Eychenne J., de’ Michieli Vitturi M., Neri A., Cioni R., Pistolesi M., Gaunt E., Vallejo S., Encalada M., Yepes H., Proaño A., Pique M. (2021). Eruption type probability and eruption source parameters at Cotopaxi and Guagua Pichincha volcanoes (Ecuador) with uncertainty quantification. Bulletin of Volcanology vol.83, p.35, - DOI:10.1007/s00445-021-01458-z - .
- Thivet S., Harris A., Gurioli L., Bani P., Barnie T., Bombrun M., Marchetti E. (2021). Multi-parametric field experiment links explosive activity and persistent degassing at Stromboli. Frontiers in Earth Science - DOI:10.3389/feart.2021.669661.
- Thouret J.C., Boivin P., Miallier D., Donnadieu F., Dumoulin J.P., Labazuy P. (2021). Post-eruption evolution of maar lakes and potential instability: The LakePavin case study, French Massif Central. Geomorphology vol.382, p.107663, - DOI:10.1016/j.geomorph.2021.107663.
- Vörös F., Pál M., Van Wyk De Vries B., Székely B. (2021). Development of a New Type of Geodiversity System for the Scoria Cones of the Chaîne des Puys Based on Geomorphometric Studies. Geosciences vol.11, p.58, - DOI:10.3390/geosciences11020058 - .
- Zhang L., Scholtes L., Donzé F.V. (2021). Discrete Element Modeling of Permeability Evolution During Progressive Failure of a Low-Permeable Rock Under Triaxial Compression. Rock Mechanics Rock Engineering - DOI:10.1007/s00603-021-02622-9 - .
- Bablon M., Quidelleur X., Samaniego P., Le Pennec J.L., Santamaría S., Liorzou C., Hidalgo S., Eschbach B. (2020). Volcanic history reconstruction in northern Ecuador: insights for eruptive and erosion rates on the whole Ecuadorian arc. Bulletin of Volcanology vol.82, - DOI:10.1007/s00445-019-1346-1.
- Bablon M., Quidelleur X., Siani G., Samaniego P., Le Pennec J.L., Nouet J., Liorzou G., Santamaria S., Hidalgo S. (2020). Glass shard K-Ar dating of the Chalupas caldera major eruption: Main Pleistocene stratigraphic marker of the Ecuadorian volcanic arc. Quaternary Geochronology vol.57, p.101053, - DOI:10.1016/j.quageo.2020.101053.
- Baize S., Audin L., Alvarado A., Jomard H., Bablon M., Champenois J., Espin P., Samaniego P., Quidelleur X., Le Pennec J.L. (2020). Active Tectonics and Earthquake Geology Along the Pallatanga Fault, Central Andes of Ecuador. Frontiers in Earth Science vol.8, 193, - DOI:10.3389/feart.2020.00193 - .
- Bernard K. (2020). Epithermal clast coating inside the rock avalanche-debris flow deposits from Mount Meager Volcanic Complex, British Columbia (Canada). Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research - DOI:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2020.106994 - .
- Biren J., Harris A., Tuffen H., Chevrel O., Gurioli L., Vlastélic I., Schiavi F., Benbakkar M., Fonquernie C., Calabro L. (2020). Chemical, Textural and Thermal Analyses of Local Interactions Between Lava Flow and a Tree – Case Study From Pāhoa, Hawai’i. Frontiers in Earth Science - DOI:10.3389/feart.2020.00233 - .
- Bodart O., Cayol V., Dabaghi F., Koko J. (2020). Fictitious domain method for an inverse problem in volcanoes. vol.138, Domain Decomposition Methods in Science and Engineering XXV Series: Lecture Notes in Computational Science and Engineering, Editors Haynes, R., MacLachlan, S., Cai, X.-C., Halpern, L., Kim, H.H., Klawonn, A., Widlund, O., Springer International Publishing (ed.), - DOI:10.1007/978-3-030-56750-7.
- Boudoire G., Grassa F., Giuffrida G., Liuzzo M. (2020). Recommendations and Protocols for the Use of the Isotope RatioInfrared Spectrometer (Delta Ray) to Measure StableIsotopes from CO2: An Application to Volcanic Emissions atMount Etna and Stromboli (Sicily, Italy). Geofluids p.ID 4598190, - .
- Boudoire G., Liuzzo M., Cappuzzo S., Griuffrida G., Cosenza P., Derrien A., Falcone E.E. (2020). The SoilExp software: An open-source Graphical User Interface (GUI) for post-processing spatial and temporal soil surveys. Computers and Geosciences - DOI:10.1016/j.cageo.2020.104553 - .
- Boudoire G., Rizzo A.L., Arienzo I., Di Muro A. (2020). Paroxysmal eruptions tracked by variations of helium isotopes: inferences from piton de la fournaise (La Réunion island). Scientific Report vol.10, p.9809, - DOI:10.1038/s41598-020-66260-x - .
- Bougouin A., Paris R., Roche O. (2020). Impact of Fluidized Granular Flows into Water:Implications for Tsunamis Generated by Pyroclastic Flows. Journal of Geophysical Research - Solid Earth vol.125, p.e2019JB018954, - DOI:10.1029/2019JB018954 - .
- Burgi P.-Y., Boudoire G., Rufino F., Karume K., Tedesco D. (2020). Recent Activity of Nyiragongo (Democratic Republic of Congo): New Insights From Field Observations and Numerical Modeling. Geophysical Research Letters vol.47, p.e2020GL088484, 17, - DOI:10.1029/2020GL088484 - .
- Calabrò L., Harris A., Thouret J.C. (2020). Media views of the Stromboli 2002–2003 eruption and evacuation: a content analysis to understand framing of risk communication during a volcanic crisis. Journal of Applied Volcanology vol.9, - DOI:10.1186/s13617-020-00094-0 - .
- Charbonnier S.J., Thouret J.C., Gueugneau V., Constantinescu R. (2020). New insights into the c.2070 yr BP pyroclastic currents at El Misti volcano (Peru) from field investigations, satellite imagery and probabilistic modeling. Frontiers in Earth Science vol.8, p.557788, - DOI:10.3389/feart.2020.557788 - .
- Cioni R., Tadini A., Gurioli L., Bertagnini A., Mulas M., Bevilacqua A., Neri A. (2020). Estimating eruptive parameters and related uncertaintiesfor pyroclastic density currents deposits: worked examplesfrom Somma-Vesuvius (Italy). Bulletin of Volcanology vol.82, p.65, - DOI:10.1007/s00445-020-01402-7 - .
- Colo L., Ripepe M., Gurioli L., Harris A. (2020). Fragmentation Processes During Strombolian Explosions Revealed Using Particle Size Distribution Mapping. Frontiers in Earth Science vol.8, p.356, - DOI:10.3389/feart.2020.00356 - .
- Colombier M., Shea T., Burgisser A., Druitt T., Gurioli L., Müller D., Cáceres F., Hess K.U., Boivin P., Miallier D., Dingwell D.B. (2020). Rheological change and degassing during a trachytic Vulcanian eruption at Kilian Volcano, Chaîne des Puys, France. Bulletin of Volcanology vol.82, p.78, - DOI:10.1007/s00445-020-01420-5 - .
- Cox R., Ardhuin F., Dias F., Autret R., Beisiegel N., Earlie C.S., Herterich J.G., Kennedy A., Paris R., Raby A., Schmitt P., Weiss R. (2020). Systematic Review Shows That Work Done by Storm Waves Can Be Misinterpreted as Tsunami-Related Because Commonly Used Hydrodynamic Equations Are Flawed. Frontiers in Marine Science vol.7, 4, - DOI:10.3389/fmars.2020.00004 - .
- Di Salvo S., Avanzinelli R., Isaia R., Zanetti A., Druitt T., Francalanci L. (2020). Crystal-mush reactivation by magma recharge: Evidence from theCampanian Ignimbrite activity, Campi Flegrei volcanicfield, Italy. Lithos vol.376-377, p.105780, - DOI:10.1016/j.lithos.2020.105780 - .
- Dufresne A., Zernack A., Bernard K., Thouret J.C., Roverato M. (2020). Sedimentology of volcanic debris avalanche deposits. vol.Chap. 7, p.175-210, in Roverato M, Dufresne A. and Procter JN (eds.), Volcanic Debris Avalanches: from Collapse to Hazards, Springer Book Series ‘Advances in Volcanology’ - ISBN 978-3-030-57410-9, Springer.
- Edwards M.J., Pioli L., Harris A., Gurioli L., Thivet S. (2020). Magma fragmentation and particle size distributions in low intensity mafic explosions: the July/August 2015 Piton de la Fournaise eruption. Nature Scientific Reports vol.10, p.13953, - DOI:10.1038/s41598-020-69976-y - .
- Freret-Lorgeril V., Gilchrist J., Donnadieu F., Jellinek A.M., Delanoë J., Latchimy T., Vinson J.P., Caudoux C., Peyrin F., Hervier C., Valade S. (2020). Ash sedimentation by fingering and sediment thermals from wind-affected volcanic plumes. Earth and Planetary Science Letters vol.534, p.116072, - DOI:10.1016/j.epsl.2020.116072 - .
- Gueugneau V., Kelfoun K., Charbonnier S., Germa A., Carazzo G. (2020). Dynamics and Impacts of the May 8th, 1902 Pyroclastic Current at Mount Pelée (Martinique): New Insights From Numerical Modeling. Frontiers in Earth Science - DOI:10.3389/feart.2020.00279 - .
- Harris A., Mannini S., Thivet S., Chevrel O., Gurioli L., Villeneuve N., Di Muro A., Peltier A. (2020). How shear helps lava to flow. Geology vol.48, p.154-158, 2, - DOI:10.1130/G47110.1 - .
- Karstens J., Kelfoun K., Watt S.F.L., Berndt C. (2020). Combining 3D seismics, eyewitness accounts and numerical simulations to reconstruct the 1888 Ritter Island sector collapse and tsunami. International Journal of Earth Sciences vol.109, p.2659-2677, - DOI:10.1007/s00531-020-01854-4 - .
- Karátson D., Telbisz T., Gertisser R., Strasse T., Nomikou P., Druitt T., Vereb V., Quidelleur X., Kósik S. (2020). Constraining the landscape of Late Bronze Age Santorini prior to theMinoan eruption: Insights from volcanological, geomorphological andarchaeological findings. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research vol.401, p.106911, - DOI:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2020.106911 - .
- Kelfoun K., Harris A., Bontemps M., Labazuy P., Chausse F., Ripepe M., Donnadieu F. (2020). A method for 3D reconstruction of volcanic bomb trajectories. Bulletin of Volcanology vol.82, p.34, 4, - DOI:10.1007/s00445-020-1372-z - .
- Larrue S., Paris R., Etienne S. (2020). The use of vascular plant densities to estimate the age of undated lava flows in semi-arid areas of Fogo Island (Cape Verde, Atlantic Ocean). Journal of Arid Environments vol.173, p.104042, - DOI:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2019.104042.
- Lormand C., Harris A., Chevrel O., CalvariS., Gurioli L., Favalli M., Fornaciai A., Nannipieri L. (2020). The 1974 West Flank Eruption of Mount Etna: A Data-Driven Model for a Low Elevation Effusive Event. Frontiers in Earth Science vol.8, p.590411, - DOI:10.3389/feart.2020.590411 - .
- Marzano F.S., Mereu L., Scollo S., Donnadieu F., Bonadonna C. (2020). Tephra Mass Eruption Rate from Ground-based X-Band and L-Band Microwave Radars during the 23 November 2013 Etna Paroxysm. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing vol.58, p.3314-3327, 5, - DOI:10.1109/TGRS.2019.2953167 - .
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- Navarrete W.F., Le Pennec J.L., Solano S., Liorzou C., Ruiz G.A. (2020). A first reconstruction of the evolution of Cubilche Volcanic Complex, Imbabura Province, Ecuador. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research vol.406, p.107023, - DOI:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2020.107023.
- Paris A., Heinrich P., Paris R., Abadie S. (2020). The December 22, 2018 Anak Krakatau, Indonesia, Landslide and Tsunami: Preliminary Modeling Results. Pure and Applied Geophysics vol.571-590, - DOI:10.1007/s00024-019-02394-y - .
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The answers to these questions were elaborated in response to questions from students by several researchers of the laboratory, Luca Teray, Raphael Paris, Karim Kelfoun and Valérie Cayol. If these answers do not answer your questions, please contact Valérie Cayol (firstname.lastname@example.org) or Karim Kelfoun (email@example.com).
What exactly is the name of your job?
In practice, the name of our profession is researcher, teacher-researcher, professor or physicist. You can also be a doctoral student or a post-doctoral researcher, but these positions correspond to fixed-term contracts. Our object of study is volcanoes. We are researchers in volcanology. You can also say volcanologist or vulcanologist of course.
In which professional sector is this job located?
The civil service.
Who is your employer?
The Magmas and Volcanoes Laboratory’s researchers have a variety of employers. They are the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), the Université Clermont Auvergne (UCA) or the Institut de Recherches et Développement (IRD).
Where is your workplace located?
The researchers have offices at the university but they are also required to carry out laboratory analyses and measurement campaigns on land sometimes located on other continents. The research laboratory to which we are attached is a joint research unit, which means that it associates CNRS researchers and a university. The IRD is also associated with the laboratory.
What is your working rhythm?
Researchers work 35 hours a week and are entitled to 9 weeks of holiday. But researchers are generally passionate about their work. It is also a competitive profession, so researchers do not count their hours. In practice, researchers work 50 hours a week and it is not uncommon for them to take less than 5 weeks’ holiday a year.
Why did you choose this profession?
Because it’s a job that allows you to satisfy your curiosity. The approach is very satisfying because it generally consists of going back and forth between field observations, laboratory observations and simulations. In addition, you have relative freedom in the choice of research areas, approaches and timetables.
What is the purpose of your job?
See for example the video presentation of the volcanology team https://lmv.uca.fr/recherche/volcanologie/ .
At the Magmas and Volcanoes Laboratory, we seek to understand volcanism from its source in the Earth’s mantle to the emission of volcanic products into the atmosphere. The questions we ask are: why do volcanoes erupt, what are the precursors of an eruption, what type of activity will occur, how does this activity evolve, what is its impact on human activities (aviation, agriculture, health, etc.), plants, animals and the climate ? In addition to the hazards immediately linked to volcanic activity (lava flows, mudflows, pyroclastic flows, explosions, volcanic bombs and ash, tsunamis), volcanoes release greenhouse gases (CO2), acid gases (SO2) and ash, which have an impact on the climate and populations.
What needs do you meet by doing this job?
A need to understand the world around us. Some of our research also allows us to better assess the risks associated with volcanism. We also participate in the transmission of knowledge to society through teaching at the university and our exchanges with the media (newspapers, television, radio, cinema, festivals).
Can you describe in concrete terms the activities you often do, so that I can get a picture of your daily work?
To carry out our research we combine field observations (with in situ or remote measuring devices, with drones or satellites), laboratory observations (physico-chemical analysis of volcanic products, physical experiments), and models, whether carried out by laboratory experiments or on computers. The purpose of these models is to better understand the physical processes that govern the observed behaviour. Because nature is complex, problems are simplified to study particular parameters. But, like many people, we spend most of our time in front of a computer, as we not only have to process data, but also to set up projects to obtain funding, to write reports and publications, to prepare conferences, to discuss by e-mail or video conference with other colleagues, and to this add some administrative work.
Tell me about a typical day at work
Researchers spend time supervising students, writing projects, administering their own and other people’s research, reading and writing articles, preparing conferences and of course doing their research (analysis of data sets, laboratory analyses, modelling, etc.).
What other professionals do you work with? (working alone / in teams / partners…)
Each of us, is a specialist in a specific field (lava flows, volcanic earthquakes, tsunamis, gases, etc.). To better understand volcanism and its impact, we need to work with other researchers with complementary specialities, either in the laboratory or in other laboratories: mathematicians, computer scientists, physicists, doctors, etc. As our studies involve observations of volcanoes, we collaborate with volcanological observatories located on the national territory (in Reunion Island, Guadeloupe or Martinique) or abroad. We also sometimes collaborate with professionals in the private sector for research related to geomaterials, hydrology, geothermal energy or natural hazards.
What are the qualities needed to do your job?
You have to be curious and passionate, have a good physical sense, and be academically excellent. You have to be very independent and have your own questions, while being able to work in a team. You also need to be able to communicate orally at conferences and in writing through articles that will be published in English in scientific journals. It is nowadays necessary to be fluent in English.
Tell me about the positive aspects of your job
It is a job that feeds our questions about the world around us. The possibility of satisfying our curiosity is a great source of satisfaction for many researchers.
We have a great deal of freedom: freedom to choose our research topics insofar as these topics allow us to obtain funding, freedom to choose with whom we want to work, and relative freedom of schedule. All this is possible provided that we produce knowledge through articles published in scientific journals and communications at conferences.
It is also a profession that allows you to be at the crossroads of many scientific disciplines (geology, physics, chemistry, mathematics, computer science, geography, economics, sociology, etc.), which is very enriching, and which gives you the opportunity to travel and meet people from different cultures.
In addition to their research, teacher-researchers also teach, both at Licence level (the first three years of study after the baccalaureate) and at Master level (fourth and fifth years of study after the baccalaureate). The researchers and teacher-researchers also supervise doctoral students (three years of research after a Master’s degree). We are thus in constant contact with students, teaching, questioning and being questioned.
Tell me about the negative aspects of your job
It’s hard to set limits on what you want to do and can do. We often bring work home with us and it is sometimes difficult to “disconnect” from work. It’s a passionate job that has the defects of its qualities. Researchers’ salaries are not particularly high and differ little according to their rank and responsibilities. Opportunities for promotion are limited. In short, you don’t do this job for the money. For example, a researcher with ten years’ seniority earns barely 2500 euros net per month.
Does a volcanologist go near active volcanoes to study them?
The image of the volcanologist is, in the collective imagination, attached to that of an adventurer in a reflective suit taking measurements just a few metres from the molten lava, or descending into a smoking crater! This vision comes largely from the documentaries and books of Haroun Tazieff and Katia and Maurice Kraft, which were made in the second half of the 20th century. However, it no longer really corresponds to the reality of a volcanologist’s work. Nowadays, it is possible to monitor volcanoes remotely, using satellites, drones or stations installed on volcanoes that transmit their measurements to the other side of the world. Volcanologists are no longer the backpackers of the 1970s. Many researchers also study volcanoes in the laboratory or digitally, which does not require them to go into the field. However, it will always be necessary to go close to active volcanoes to understand them better. Some of the activities of today’s volcanologist in the field that will not disappear soon include:
- installing and maintaining measuring stations (seismometers, gnss, cameras, gas analysers, etc.) on volcanoes
- collecting samples (rocks, ash, lava, gas) to be analysed in the laboratory to better understand recent and old eruptions
- testing new measurement and observation techniques currently being developed in the laboratory and which will become part of the volcanologists’ toolbox in the future (the most emblematic example is the application of drones for volcanology)
- carrying out surveys (cartographic but also geographical and sociological) in volcanic regions to assess vulnerability to volcanic hazards and the resulting risk
Finally, it should be noted that some of these activities sometimes require visits to very active areas (e.g. lava flows, crater lip or fumarole fields), although this is becoming increasingly rare. These operations are of course carried out after an extremely rigorous risk assessment and with equipment specially designed to protect against possible dangers.
If you ever have to go into the field, what are the first difficulties you will encounter on these excursions?
Volcanic terrains are very diverse, they can be located on every continent with all the varieties of political regimes that this implies, they can be at sea level in Hawaii to almost 7000m in the Andes (not to mention submarine volcanoes), it can be over 40°C in the Afar region of Ethiopia, as well as -20°C on Erebus in Antarctica. They can be located within minutes of a large city (e.g. Vesuvius and Naples) or hundreds of kilometres from any inhabited area (e.g. some volcanoes in the Aleutian Islands). The volcano may be inactive or erupting. In short, you can expect anything! This is why all missions must be carefully prepared, from the scientific point of view (work programme and contingency plans), the natural point of view (weather, activity) and the logistical point of view (accommodation, transport, food, health), without neglecting the administrative aspects (authorisations, customs) which can prove decisive. In short, a well-prepared mission is often a successful mission (whatever the conditions), and the most difficult thing is to be well prepared, which can be learned from experience.
What is the diploma or training required today to practice your profession?
You need a doctorate (bachelor’s degree + 8 years of study), and in general you need to have completed one or more post-doctorates (research contracts), often abroad. You must have an exemplary academic record and have demonstrated that you conduct independent research leading to publications in reputable international journals. Typically, the CNRS hires 5 researchers in earth sciences per year for the whole country. In 2020, there are 80 candidates for these 5 positions. The last researchers hired by the CNRS in the Volcanology team of the Magmas and Volcanoes Laboratory were hired in 2006 and 2020. As far as other types of positions are concerned, the Volcanology team has hired 1 professor, 2 lecturers, 2 physicists and 3 researchers attached to the IRD over the last ten years. It is therefore a very competitive profession. Competition continues to obtain funding to carry out our projects (about 10% of the projects submitted to the National Research Agency are subsidised). To face up to this competition, and to persevere despite the difficulties that may arise, you need to be highly motivated.
The volcanoes we study
Understanding volcanism requires the acquisition of field data: visible and thermal imagery, geophysical campaigns, gas, rock and ash sampling for petrological and geochemical analyses, mapping of deposits and destruction, etc.
Our targets depend on the current activity, research themes and our collaborations with French laboratories and observatories, as well as partner countries.
Soufrière de Guadeloupe Piton de la Fournaise volcano Italian volcanoes Indonesian volcanoes Andean volcanism African volcanoes